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What is Diabetes Mellitus? – Understanding Diabetes – Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 What is Diabetes Mellitus? Normally after we eat or drink, our body will break down sugars from our food and use them for energy in our cells. To accomplish this, our pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. Diabetes mellitus occurs when insulin production is deficient.
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This results in a high level of blood sugar in the body. Without insulin in our body, glucose cannot enter the body cells and is excreted through urine, which results in its loss.
An increase in blood glucose concentration leads to loss of water in cells, via osmosis, to blood. To understand what happens in a diabetes patient, we need to understand what happens in the normal mechanism. Whenever the blood glucose level increases, the pancreas responds by secreting insulin. Insulin has two functions here, it converts glucose to glycogen and increases the metabolism of glucose in cells. This is how the glucose levels fall and the blood sugar level goes back to normal. The pancreas will secrete less insulin when the blood sugar level is low. It decreases the glucose metabolism and gives the chance for sugar level to increase and return the blood sugar level to normal.
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People with diabetes are having problems in their pancreas. It produces insufficient insulin or none at all, halting its effectiveness to process glucose. This causes blood sugar level to arise from the lack of glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the rest of the cells are in need of the energy but are not supplied any. The cells’ deprivation leads to wide problems in nearly every major body system. Types of Diabetes Diabetes has two main types: type 1 and type 2.
Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Our own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying our body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, one must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult as it is inherited. Its symptoms include frequent urination, thirst, fatigue, insulin shock, and diabetic coma. Insulin shock can be described as a feeling of dizziness, sweating, and paleness. Diabetic coma can be described as partial or complete loss of consciousness. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It is usually suffered by older people but lately, this type occurs more frequently in younger people. Obesity is the prime risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is mostly a result of poor lifestyle, dietary, and exercise habits. Its symptoms include blurred vision and fatigue. Prolonged insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes can eventually leads the beta-cell in pancreas to atrophy and stops producing insulin effectively. Insulin medication must be needed later on. .